Annexure A CITY OF CAPE TOWN METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT MASTER PLAN FOR AN INTEGRATED CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV) SYSTEM FOR THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN Revised 2011 PREPARED BY: DIRECTOR RIDWAN WAGIET TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introductory comments A brief historical overview The need for an updated master plan Guiding principles Current operating methodology Future applications Performance standards System design Elements that constitute the master plan Mechanisms for management and oversight (MAT Team) Concluding remarks 2 MASTER PLAN FOR AN INTEGRATED CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVESION (CCTV) SYSTEM FOR THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS Over the last decade, CCTV systems have proven to be an extremely effective tool in containing and preventing crime both within the international and local environment. The challenges of crime however has precipitated the development and introduction of numerous CCTV applications. Many private sector organisations, prime residential estates and business corporations have opted to introduce elaborate CCTV systems. Initially these systems were largely static and reactive in nature, but with the latest advent of technology, motion sensor cameras and live monitoring have become more prominent. Within the Metropolitan City, certain improvement districts have also considered introducing footprints so as to enhance the overall safety and security of the precinct and thereby promote investment opportunities in the improvement district. As far as the monitoring of public open space is concerned, the City of Cape Town and more specifically the Metropolitan Police Department has a particular mandate to prevent crime. The current footprint of cameras in the City is used proactively and is managed as a strategic tool in both the preventing and combating of crime. With the advent of the 2010 Soccer World Cup, numerous private sector organisations have displayed an interest in establishing CCTV systems and have started communicating with the City in this regard. In order to ensure an integrated CCTV 3 system for the City, it is of paramount importance that a master plan and more specifically a framework that will guide new footprints is prepared and accepted by the parties concerned. This document provides certain guidelines supported by the policing approach of containing crime. Financial sustainability is the most important consideration and an effective system can only be achieved through a public private partnership. The management and control of the system however must remain the responsibility of the policing agencies as they possess the legislative mandate to monitor and react to crimes perpetrated. International research has shown that one CCTV camera is as effective as ten patrolmen and has the added advantage of the footage which may be stored and retrieved when required for evidential or prosecution purposes. Many European and American states have developed protocols of engagement with the private sector so as to ensure the integration of systems within larger Metropolitan cities. A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW In 1998, the then City of Cape Town was faced with numerous challenges, particularly in the Central Business District. Crime was on the increase, anti social behaviour in the form of aggressive begging resulted in the business community of Cape Town becoming particularly vocal about the state of affairs. Parking terrorists had taken over the streets and the theft of and theft out of motor vehicles in many of the major parking areas had reached alarming proportions. In particular the Grand Parade had experienced a substantial increase in muggings and theft out of motor vehicle. In December of that year, a tower was erected on the Grand Parade whereby a law enforcement officer with a pair of binoculars surveyed the area. He was in radio 4 contact with three of his colleagues who acted as the response. This initiative proved extremely successful but met with opposition from the National Monument’s Council. In 1999, a pilot project was introduced where the imagery was relayed and observed by the Central SAPS. Soon thereafter, a pilot project which consisted of some 12 cameras was initiated. This was a partnership between the City and Business Against Crime (BAC). This project met with huge success and laid the foundation for a partnership to enable a more substantial footprint. The City through its Planning and Economic Development branch provided capital funding to the tune of R8.53 million for an initial CCTV footprint within the CBD. BAC was contracted to design, implement and operate the CCTV cameras on behalf of the City. This initial footprint consisted of some 72 cameras. BAC clearly designed a world class system that proved to be extremely effective in both preventing and combating crime. Two years later, the City took control of the system and has subsequently rolled out additional Cameras to the following areas: • South Eastern Area – Athlone to Manenberg • Bonteheuwel • Mitchells Plain • Khayelitsha • Sea Point • Woodstock • N1 Durban Road Corridor • N2 BMT • Klipfontein Corridor 5 • PTI’s o Bellville o Joe Gqabi o Mitchell’s Plain o Philippi In 2001 Grand West handed over control of the cameras they installed along Vanguard Drive and entered into a partnership with the City whereby pay the City an annual operating fee. The City acquired this system in December 2010 From the outset, the intention was to use the CCTV system as a multifunctional tool to enhance not only safety and security, but other service related aspects such as transport and planning applications. The Transport and Roads department actively participated in the initial planning of additional footprints and the first ever master plan was developed jointly by the then Protection Services and Transport and Roads departments. In terms of this document, the Safety and Security (Protection Services) Directorate was responsible for the operation of the system where Transport and Roads had introduced cameras. The capital funding for CCTV projects would be provided for by the branch requiring the service and the service standards were governed by a form of service level agreement. With the formation of the Unicity and the restructuring processes, the master plan soon became obsolete. The initial document was deficient in that it did not provide a framework for the participation of other spheres of government and/or the private sector. It must be borne in mind that the Provincial government of the Western Cape in the 2002/3 financial year contributed some R17 million for the footprints that were introduced in the presidential areas of Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain. 6 THE NEED FOR AN UPDATED MASTER PLAN Given the deficiencies mentioned above, together with the dramatic increases in crime, numerous agencies have indicated their willingness to participate in a well managed and integrated CCTV system. An additional reason is clearly the challenges provided with respect to the hosting of the 2010 World Cup. Based on the assumption that CCTV is a strategic surveillance tool with multiple applications, the effectiveness of the system will be dependent upon a host of role players/stakeholders. In this regard the participation of the South African Police Services (SAPS), the department of Community Safety and the Provincial branch of the National Prosecuting Authority are of paramount importance. Although fairly good working relationships exist between the agencies, these have never been formalised in terms of concluding Memorandums Of Understandings. There is also some uncertainty with respect to the roles and functions of the lead enforcement agencies in terms of the overall management of the system. CCTV applications are arguably one of the most expensive capital items and the operational costs associated with the introduction of these systems are often prohibitively expensive, particularly when a real time monitoring service is provided, supported by a 24 hour response capability. Many businesses in the CBD have introduced their own systems and have on numerous occasions enquired about the possibility of linkages with the City so as to enhance the overall safety and security of the environment. Given the absence of a master plan, the private sector has remained reluctant to get involved with the system where the benefits that will accrue are not clearly defined. The City must therefore develop a framework to guide the 7 contributions of the private sector so as to ensure the financial sustainability into the future. Given the operational cost, serious consideration should be given to the development of a system which will use static, pan tilt zoon (PTZ) and dome cameras as part of the application. Recording considerations are important in this regard as well as the storage, encryption and retrieval of information. The system in its current form would therefore have to include both a reactive and proactive component in its design. GUIDING PRINCIPLES Containment Strategy The development and extension of the system will be informed by the principles of the containment strategy. This scientifically tested approach advocates a holistic approach to crime prevention and essentially prescribes that the policing systems and techniques fully encompass a defined jurisdictional area or City perimeter. (Crime is contained and systematically eradicated) and hence discourages the displacement of crime. This strategy is based on a short term plan (5 year) and a longer plan (5 -10 years) where careful consideration is given to economic development projections and any major events which may be hosted by the region or City e.g. rugby, cricket or soccer world cup events or any major developments such as the Grand West Casino or Cape Town Convention Centre. Programmed budgeting is thus central to the roll out of 8 further footprints and in this regard a political champion and administrative sponsor must be identified and supported at the highest political level. Systematic extensions (Future footprints) Strategic considerations must be applied prior to the commencement of any future further extensions to the system. Compatibility and applicability must be top of mind aspects which should be guided by carefully prepared Crime Threat and Pattern Analysis (CTA and CPA). In order to ensure a holistic approach to planned additional footprints, a representative assessment team must be established and should include among others representatives from the following branches / agencies: • The South African Police Service (SAPS) • The DPP • Traffic services • Law enforcement services • Specialised law enforcement services • The Dept Community Safety – if applicable • Organised business • Roads and Transportation • Fire Services • Disaster management • City Health • Sport and recreation 9 • A technical expert • A CCTV consultant • The Director of the CCTV centre The work performed by this team will ensure the acceptability and credibility of and future roll outs. At this stage the more detailed budgetary estimates should be prepared and factored into the City’s budgetary process. Quality Assurance Systems CCTV systems are only as effective as its monitoring and response capability enable them to be. However standard operating procedures (SOP’s), systems and internal processes are equally important. The CCTV centre must endeavour to obtain an ISO accreditation or as a minimum standard and adopt an appropriate quality assurance system. Acceptable standards such as incident detection and response times must be benchmarked against international standards and service evaluations should be conducted quarterly as a minimum standard. Service reviews must involve all participants i.e. the surveillance unit operators, the response team / staff as well as the management and control staff of the CCTV centre. Co-operation and service enhancement will be ensured through this approach. Operating Model Consideration must be given to preferred operating models. The management and control however must reside with the Metropolitan Police department given the strategic significance of the information recorded. The DPP, a number of years ago 10 prepared detailed prosecuting and operating guidelines for video prosecution. The DPP has more recently been requested to assist with the preparation of an updated set of prosecuting guidelines. The DPP will frown upon any operating model which does not ensure the direct management and oversight by the policing agency. Partnerships with accredited security service providers may be enabled but should be governed by strictly enforced service contracts. The involvement of the private sector must be governed by protocols which define each party’s roles and responsibilities in terms of the agreement. Public private partnerships however should be encouraged so as to ensure the financial sustainability of the extended system. Although one or two other cities in the country are considering other models, international research has proven that the current operating system is by far the most appropriate option. Involvement of key stakeholders As stated, CCTV costs a considerable amount of money to introduce and operate. Since it should be seen as a strategic tool benefiting not only the general public but also the broader business sector, additional stakeholders should be encouraged to contribute to either the capital cost or the annual operating costs. Provincial departments, the SAPS and the business community should be encouraged to contribute to both the operating and capital costs. The public sector should wherever possible be requested to carry the capital costs and the business sector requested to contribute towards operational costs. Once again well structured protocols must be prepared so as to protect the integrity of the centre and the information it produces. 11 Irrespective of the involvement and /or contributions made by parties other than the city, the lead agency must take control of any incident requiring the mobilization of emergency service branches. Legislative responsibilities cannot be compromised in any way. An Integrated City Management System The system in its current form is essentially one dimensional and is dominated by the Metropolitan Police Department, with limited involvement from the Transport and Roads Directorate. Unless the operational concept is expanded and the system is used at a ‘city management tool’, the operation will lack legitimacy among the remaining City service directorates. Some progress has been made in the establishment of a Multi agency task team which will drive future initiatives relating to CCTV. This team once fully constituted and established will become the vehicle through which all stakeholders would be able to meaningfully contribute towards the planning, design, implementation and operation of systems. The acceptability and ‘joint ownership’ of the system is extremely important as it must be seen to be a tool that will assist the entire region in creating an environment that is safe and secure. A shift is required in terms of the current priority and should be used as a City management tool so as to enhance the delivery of service to both private citizens and the business community. Continuous Technological Review Processes In 2006/07, numerous problems were experienced when the first wireless system was introduced. These problems overshadowed those experienced when the ‘daisy chain’ 12 system was introduced in Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain in 2004. These problems have long since been rectified, essentially due to the involvement of technological experts. In terms of this master plan, technological experts should advise the City on the latest developments within the CCTV environment. This will ensure that the City’s system does not become obsolete or outdated. Sufficient budgetary provision on an annual basis needs to be made for equipment replacements and system upgrades. Application of international best practices with respect to CCTV Numerous best practice approaches exist and over the last three years, the UK and Chinese models have been explored. The Unites States, Canada, South Korea and Germany in particular have developed intelligent systems that are integrated and provide certain levels of information to partnership agencies. Research must be undertaken on a continuous basis to ensure that the City remains abreast of all the latest developments within the CCTV environment. Wherever possible best practice approaches must be imported and applied to the local environment. International and National Study Tours At least once per year, a national study tour should be arranged where senior executives and the political portfolio holder for the Safety and Security visits the major CCTV installations. Every second year, an international tour should be arranged so as to experience the latest innovations. During these tours, engagements with both policing, technological experts and senior City representatives should be arranged so as to extract relevant and pertinent information. Although it can be argued that the Cape Town system is one that meets international standards, clearly it needs to evolve to a level where multiple agencies are able to derive benefit there from. 13 Current Operating Methodology Attached hereto as per Annexure A are the current operating procedures that defines the existing concept of operations. Although fairly comprehensive, a certain amount of revision would have to be undertaken in order to align with the principles contained in this master plan. FUTURE APPLICATIONS Given the cost associated with the introduction of CCTV systems, it is essential to use the system for a host of applications. The merits of the respective applications have been debated at length within the Transport and Roads and Safety and Security Portfolio Committees and recommendations have been made in this regard. Clearly the challenge would be to move from the narrower application of crime / law enforcement to one that involves the requirements of other service branches. Having said that, however, and given the impact and importance of criminal activity, crime prevention and crime combating would have to remain high on the agenda. The following applications will require some development if maximum benefit is to be derived from the system. Transport The major Metropolitan routes are currently monitored and to some extent, the cameras are used to facilitate the movement of traffic along these routes. Monitoring of public transport lanes to some extent is also being undertaken and the level of enforcement has already commenced. A transport engineer is part of the control room environment at the Goodwood centre and depending on traffic demands, signal plans 14 are able to be manipulated. This application however is restricted as full integration from a transportation planning point of view has not taken place. Consideration must be given to enabling overhead variable message signs, commuter advice, linkages with public transport interchanges and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) software. From an enforcement point of view, the ANPR will enable the immediate enforcement in public transport lanes and a host of other traffic violation aspects. Traffic Enforcement A limited amount of traffic enforcement currently takes place through the existing system. In London, however the inner city bus lane transportation system relies exclusively on CCTV for prosecution purposes. No physical manpower is assigned to enforce transgressions in dedicated lanes. The entire spectrum of enforcement from observation to verification of the offence as well as the removal of the vehicle is enabled via the CCTV system. Document processing and the first notification of offence is also enabled via the CCTV system. This is a standard that must be rigorously pursued in order to derive maximum efficiency particularly with the build up of the 2010 World Cup. By-law Enforcement A host of City by-laws are transgressed on a daily basis. These include blocked fire escapes, illegal dumping, littering, signage by-laws etc. Additional emphasis must be placed particularly on the Streets by-law and enforcement action initiated by the CCTV centre. 15 City Management The centre should also be instrumental in dealing with maintenance aspects which may include, but not limited to the following: • The trimming of trees and shrubs which may be obstructing pedestrian passage or signage etc. • The reinstatement of trenches after road works has been undertaken • The replacement of road traffic signs that may have been damaged due to a motor vehicle accident • The repair of damaged or faulty traffic signals including the replacement of fused light bulbs • The reinstatement of faded road markings • The reporting and response to street lighting that may be out • The monitoring and enforcement of solid waste contraventions • The monitoring and enforcement of the contravention of illegal signs • The monitoring, enforcement and removal of graffiti from both public and private property • The monitoring of aspects related to informal trading in designated and prohibited areas • The identification of homeless/street children and the mobilisation of the Social Development departments 16 Performance Standards Surveillance unit operators Consoles should be designed so as to have a maximum of 16 screens. The console should have a larger observation screen and essentially two operators should be stationed at a console at any given time. The principle of two on and one off should apply (which allows the operator some rest time). This will ensure that operators remain alert and attentive for the duration of the shift The Monitors The minimum screen size should be 300mm x 400mm with a definition of 1024 X 720 mega pixels. The observation screen should be a minimum size of 400mm x 600mm. All monitors in future will be a LCD Barco Type Video wall where the size of the picture can be altered. Since taking the first seventy two cameras over from BAC in 2000 the new installations and the original system are all digitally recorded and the entire system is now operating on an IP based Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) backbone. System Design • Means of communication (fibre optic, wireless and combination of wireless and fibre) • A team of sixty cctv operators monitors all CCTV cameras at any given time on a 24/7 basis 17 • Incidents are responded to by:o all available law enforcement agencies viz. (for criminal activity) . Metro Police . Traffic services . Law Enforcement . Saps o Emergency Services (non criminal Activity) • Fire Department • Ambulance • Disaster Management • Waterworks • Electricity • All data is recorded digitally and kept for thirty days. Data of incidents where the system was actively involved in are recorded separately and kept indefinitely for future use such as Court Proceedings etc. • All data is regarded as evidential and is encrypted and can only be viewed via the licensed proprietary software viewers. • Expansion: the original system did not cater for radical expansion because it was an analogue system. The current backbone expansion capability is endless. 18 • Maintenance of the system is complex because there are two control rooms, one in the CBD and the other at N1 City. These control room monitors cameras from wide areas. A maintenance contract for periods of twenty four months at a time has been put in place to address all maintenance issues. Smart Monitoring System The Total Cameras as at 1 January 2012 329 including Cameras installed by Transport, Roads and Storm-water. Camera Category 1) 24 Hours Monitoring a. 266 Cameras 2) Day Only 06H00 to 18H00 a) 46 Cameras 3) Night only 18Hoo to 06H00 a) 2 Cameras 4) Un-monitored – Re-Active a) 15 Cameras The number of cameras can change in each category when new installations are added and crime patterns change. 19 Camera Response Unit Ideally the must be one vehicle with two members for every fifteen cameras. As at 1 January 2012 there are 329 cameras which would require 22 vehicles and 44 members per shift. In total the Camera response unit will have 88 vehicles and 176 members. Future Roll-outs THE MEDIUM AND LONG TERM ROLE-OUT PLAN 2011 TO 2021 CCTV installation Priority Table [ reference: MTREF 2011 to 2014 ] Operating Expenditure Area Year Cap-Ex Once off On-Going Response 1 Bellville 12/13 6m 1,5m 3m 5.256m 13/14 6m 2 Kuils River [Delft including the Stellenbosch Arterial Road] 13/14 4m 0.5m 1.5m 3m 3 Athlone CBD and includes Athlone Stadium and Mowbray PTI 14/15 4,5m 0.5m 1,5m 3m 4 Kraaifontein CBD includes Wallacedene 15/16 4,5m 0.5m 1,5m 3m 5 Wynberg CBD and includes PTI both below and above the railway 16/17 4,5m 0.5m 1,5m 3m 20 line 6 Modderdam Road Corridor 17/18 6m 0.8m 1,5m 5.276m 7 Lansdowne Rd. Wetton Circle to Emms Drive Philippi 18/19 6m 0.8m 1,5m 5.276m 8 Hanover Park CBD, Taxi Rank, Bus Terminus, Housing Office and Library 19/20 3m 0,3m 1,5m 3m 9 Parow – [existing private installation] 20/21 4,5m 0,6m 1,5m 3m 10 1 Grassy Park PTI 21/22 5m 1m 1,5m 3m All costs are based on current to 2012 prices. Natural increases in prices are not included as it is difficult to predict with certainty. The 2010/2011 to 2012/2013 Capital Budget provides for the installation of CCTV systems in Claremont. The 2012/2013 Budget combined with Private Funding provides for CCTV in Rondebosch Main Road Both Claremont and Wynberg [5 on priority list] are Major PTI’s and busy suburban CBD’s. the process for these installations are similar to other installations except there will be limited participation by the business sector with regards to camera locations. If an EIA is required there will be limited public participation. The main input will from SAPS and T,R &S in terms of the PTI’s. A technical consultant will be appointed by February 2011 via the normal SCM processes and tender. Depending on the foreign exchange rate a minimum of five cameras for each area is envisaged. A contractor will be appointed by April 2011 after all public processes have been completed. The means of communication of data and imagery will be a 21 combination of wireless technology and Fibre Optic fixed line. Imagery will be relayed to and monitored at the TMC at Goodwood. Small Scale Installations Some of the remote areas of the City that are too far from the control rooms in terms of infrastructure must have a locally operated system. Wireless systems work well in closely knit areas where a mini control room could be situated almost in the centre of the area to be monitored. Two Major areas have been identified viz Atlantis, Brackenfell and Somerset West, which includes the Strand and Gordon’s bay. The only other remote area that will be considered is Hout Bay. Once these areas are installed with stand alone wireless systems the City may in the future have expanded its Fibre Optic network which could make connectivity to the main control rooms possible. 22 There are also 468 Transport Interchanges throughout the City. Listed below are 67 of them which range from important and busy to not so busy. [not in any particular order] Athlone Station Transport Interchange Belhar Station Transport Interchange Bellville Station Transport Interchange Blackheath Station Transport Interchange Bonteheuwel Public Transport Interchange Brackenfell Station Transport Interchange Cape Town Station Transport Interchange Century City Public Transport Interchange Claremont Station Transport Interchange Delft (Roosendal) Public Transport Interchange (Northbo Durbanville Public Transport Interchange Edgemead Public Transport Interchange Eerste River Station Transport Interchange Eikenfontein Station Transport Interchange Elsiesrivier Station Transport Interchange Fish Hoek Station Transport Interchange Goodwood Station Transport Interchange Grassy Park Public Transport Interchange Guguletu Public Transport Interchange Hanover Park Public Transport Interchange Heideveld Station Transport Interchange Kensington Public Transport Interchange Khayelitsha (Makhaza) Public Transport Interchange Killarney (Potsdam) Public Transport Interchange Koeberg Station Transport Interchange Kraaifontein Station Transport Interchange Kuilsriver Station Transport Interchange Langa Public Transport Interchange Lansdowne Station Transport Interchange Lotus River Public Transport Interchange 23 Maitland Station Transport Interchange Manenberg Public Transport Interchange Masiphumelele (Site 5) Public Transport Interchange Melton Rose Station Transport Interchange Mfuleni Public Transport Interchange Mitchells Plain Station Transport Interchange Mowbray Station Transport Interchange Mutual Station Transport Interchange 1 N1 City Shopping Centre Public Transport Interchange Netreg Station Transport Interchange Nyanga Station Transport Interchange Eastern Side Minib Ocean View Public Transport Interchange 1 Ottery Station Transport Interchange Parow Station Transport Interchange Northern Side Pentech Station Transport Interchange Philippi Station Transport Interchange Northern Side Plumstead Station Transport Interchange Retreat Station Transport Interchange Salt River Station Transport Interchange Simonstown Station Transport Interchange Somerset Mall Public Transport Interchange Steenberg Station Transport Interchange Strand Public Transport Interchange Summer Greens Public Transport Interchange Table View Public Transport Interchange (Westbound) Tygerberg Hospital Public Transport Interchange Unibell Station Transport Interchange Wynberg Station Transport Interchange (Eastern Side) 1 Atlantis Wesfleur Metered Taxi Rank Bakoven Bus Terminus Bellville PTI Camps Bay Taxi Rank Cape Town (Adderley Street) Public Transport Interchang Elsies River Station Transport Interchange Hout Bay Bus Rank Kensington Bus Rank Mowbray 24 Department of Transport, Roads and Storm-water also installs CCTV which is monitored by the CTMPD – SSU –CCTV. The priority is also informed by budgetary constraints and crime threat and pattern analysis. ELEMENTS THAT CONSTITUTE THE MASTER PLAN 2011 – 2022 Key informants The CCTV master plan must draw from the principles and priorities as determined by the political and executive leadership of the City. The following documents/strategies would be of particular importance, the City’s 5 year integrated development plan (IDP), the City development strategy and the City’s safety strategy. In addition to the above strategic documents, the Directorate (Safety and Security) business plan must serve as a key informant. Since the Strategic Surveillance Unit (SSU) is located within the Metropolitan Police department, the objectives and priorities as contained in the annual police plan is of paramount importance. In addition to the above, consideration should be given to both the national and provincial policing priorities. An additional informant must be the programme of economic development and any urban upgrade initiatives. In this regard, the development of emerging CBD’s and partnerships concluded with other countries is of importance. An example would be the upgrade initiative currently underway in Khayelitsha and the partnership agreement that has been concluded with the German government. Already mentioned is the 2010 World Cup and the surveillance requirements associated with the ‘fan mile’ and viewing parks. In addition, the inner City bus route and any additional transport initiatives must guide any new footprints. 25 Criteria for future footprints The following criteria should be considered when deciding to introduce additional footprints: • CBD areas as they are the economic hub of the Metropolitan City. If these areas are not well managed, their growth and development will be challenged resulting in a level of disinvestment. Over the last decade many shopping malls have emerged which have seriously challenged the existence of traditional CBD areas. • Public transport interchanges. Since 60% of the working population makes use of public transport, surveillance coverage at public transport interchanges will be essential. CCTV applications could be integrated and used as a means to prevent illegal operators from making use of the interchange facilities. This will be enabled through the application of the ANPR’s previously mentioned in this document. • Crime challenges. A careful analysis needs to be undertaken with respect to policeable crimes. A detailed crime threat analysis (CTA) as well as a crime pattern analysis (CPA) must be undertaken. The SAPS must guide this process and provide the motivation and substantiation with respect to the areas identified. • Coverage of national and major Metropolitan routes • Emerging CBD’s (improvement districts). Business and city improvement districts are catalysts for economic growth and development and should be an important criteria when deciding on future roll outs. An opportunity exists for future partnerships since improvement districts derive a funding stream from the rate levies applicable to their area. 26 Funding Streams and Financial Sustainability The sustainability and growth of any CCTV system is dependent upon a variety of income streams. In this regard, the following are considered to be important: • Contributions from the national and provincial spheres of government • Once off capital grants for projects of national significance • The business community in the form of Business Against Crime • Private sector organisations such as local Economic Chambers • Improvement districts • Co-operative agreements with major development companies • Contributions from The Urban Renewal Programme and the Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading The detail regarding the above would have to be considered as and when the need arises since each participant would have specific requirements. The above merely provides a framework to enable the engagement of parties wishing to contribute or participate in an extended CCTV system. External Funding must also be approved at full Council Meetings. Memoranda of Understanding will only be entered into where funds have been donated to the City for the installation and operation of CCTV. 27 Monitoring of CCTV Currently, the monitoring of CCTV incidents is done by private security companies whose personnel are under the command and control of the City. Funding constraints allow the City only to procure “C” personnel. Adequate training is provided by their respective companies and CCTV provides on the job training as well [OJT]. A “C” grade member is second the third best member of a security company. The Ideal would be to employ disabled, wheelchair bound persons. In this category there are persons who are better than “A” Grade personnel. This is a huge step but also a compassionate one. “C” Grade personnel cost double what a “C” grade member cost. The ultimate goal is to employ full Metropolitan Police members to do the monitoring as in the Chinese Model of CCTV. There are a number of external courses offered for the monitoring of CCTV and some of the modules are listed below. 1. CCTV and the Role of the Surveillance Operator The CCTV function, the importance of the operator, noticing things around you, CCTV competencies. 2. The Surveillance Function Defining surveillance, rules of surveillance, operational requirements, camera views. 3. Observation Skills The levels of observation skills, screen viewing techniques, picture elements, incident camera views, putting people in the picture, different camera perspectives, viewing hazards, and motivation. 28 4. Situational Awareness Defining situational awareness, pattern recognition, intuition, situational profiling, surveillance competency standards. 5. People Profiling People watching, profiling people, profiling interpersonal contacts. 6. Incident Risk Dynamics and Profiling • Incident stages • Security risk behaviour • Situational risk indicators • Incident character types • Body actions, postures and responses This is a major section which deals with understanding incident stages, the role of body language, identifying and recognising incident dynamics and security risk behaviours, and applying recognition techniques to incident conditions. 7. Emotions and Stress Behaviour Types of emotions relevant to surveillance, how emotions can be displayed, behavioural signals, nervous tension and anxiety, deception, drug and alcohol use. 8. Target and Evidence Criteria Parties wanting evidence information, aspects of evidence relevant to different parties, techniques in getting evidence and evidence handling. Response Capability The success of any CCTV system is dependent on the effectiveness of the response. The preferred approach is to deploy a dedicated response capability to strategic locations (areas of high crime, intersections or priority areas). Neighbourhoods would be able to fund dedicated resources if the infrastructure is installed by the lead agency. In CBD areas the business community should be allowed to fund the operating costs associated with vehicles, radios and manpower. A policy framework 29 already exists in this regard and if necessary they would be able to source the services of dedicated policing resources for the area. The primary responsibility however to ensure an effective response will remain that of the Metropolitan Police department. Since the SAPS and the other law enforcement services within the City also possess powers of arrest in terms of the Criminal Procedures Act, they too should be encouraged to allocate resources towards dedicated response capability. There are currently 350 cameras with only 30 dedicated personnel that form the primary response team. They are on shifts and only 10 are duty at any given time. This unit must grow rapidly as the system grows. The ideal would be to have 1 officer for every 5 Cameras. Integration of Independent Systems The upshot of independent systems is a reality and has gained momentum in the last 5 years. Many prime residential estates and almost every shopping mall within the Metropolitan City have introduced surveillance cameras. In addition, many business parks have introduced sophisticated surveillance mechanisms, not only capable of detecting incidents within the property but also on the perimeter (public space). A huge amount of footage is available but given the independence, no integration/information sharing currently exists. In terms of this master plan, an attempt should be made to harness the independent systems through protocols of engagement and information sharing. This is a key element of a crime containment strategy. Many international countries have embraced this philosophy and in exchange for a voice on a strategic surveillance committee, they make their systems and expertise available to the policing agencies. This approach is therefore advocated in terms of the master plan. There are currently three such systems and the negotiations are in progress in order to integrate them into the City’s System. Introduction of Reactive Systems (Recording and Viewing) 30 Drawing on international best practice, the future sustainability of the CCTV system must consist of dome, PTZ and static cameras. The latter does not require pro-active monitoring and recording of movement or incidents may be triggered by a motion sensor. Information may be compressed and retrieved at a later stage. Static cameras are particularly effective at access control points such as subways, transport interchanges, pedestrian bridges etc. Protocols of engagement – Government departments and private sector footprints Central to the success of co-operative endeavours is the development of protocols of engagement which clarify the roles and responsibilities of the respective parties. These protocols clearly identify the objectives and detail how these are to be achieved. These protocols do not have to be elaborate documents filled with legalise; instead they should be guidelines to galvanise collective effort. Of importance, however is the fact that they are regularly revised and signed by a sufficiently high representative of the organisation. The following should constitute the basis of a protocol of engagement: • Introduction • Goals and objectives • Roles of the respective parties • Responsibilities • Respective undertakings • Preferred means of engagement • Communication 31 • Information sharing • Participation and representation in operational forums • Monitoring and oversight • Performance/service evaluation Protocols of engagement may also require the development of a service level agreement which might require the guidance and inputs of the City legal advisor. In many instances however these are not required as protocols of engagement are based on mutual trust and understanding. CONCLUDING REMARKS CCTV surveillance will remain a valuable tool in the fight against crime. Since crime affects all sectors, it is appropriate that other agencies, organisations and the private sector be allowed to participate in the development of future CCTV models. The responsibility however will have to remain with the policing agencies as they possess the legislative mandate of crime prevention. The 5 year budgetary programme attached to this report should receive serious consideration and approval and should guide the roll out of additional footprints into the identified areas. Sound logic has been applied to both the areas and the capital/operating estimates requested and should form the basis of the expansion of this system. The participation and contribution received from private sector and other organisations should be utilised to introduce additional surveillance systems over and above those contained in the budgetary estimates. Particular attention must be given to the footprints recommended by the 2010 Working Committee as they form part of the National Safety Strategy for the World Cup. Cape Town has an opportunity to develop its system into one that enhances services and continues to meet the benchmark of international cities. 32 33